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reliability design in dynamic programming

reliability design in dynamic programming

reliability design in dynamic programming

» Networks (b) Maximization of the system reliability subject to nonlinear constraints. A two-phase linear programming approach for redundancy. » C++ If we imagine that r1 is the reliability of the device. » C++ STL We conduct a case study to show the distribution of routers reliability under two different routing algorithms, XY and Oddeven. & ans. The case study is evaluated in \(8\times 8\) 2D mesh NoC. : 136–147 (2013), Kim, T.H., Persaud, R., Kim, C.: Silicon odometer: an on-chip reliability monitor for measuring frequency degradation of digital circuits. Industr. NoC provides communication fabrics for data transmission among cores. The task mapping obtains data from on-chip reliability sensors and adapts to changing lifetime distribution in the system at run-time. First, we define a lifetime budget metric for each router. Hanumaiah et al. 326–331 (2012), Bhardwaj, K., Chakraborty, K., Roy, S.: Towards graceful aging degradation in NoCs through an adaptive routing algorithm. Not logged in » DBMS » Web programming/HTML So, if we duplicate the devices at each stage then the reliability of the system can be increased. Finally, the lifetime-aware routing algorithms are evaluated in synthetic traffic and real benchmarks. Task mapping is another solution to improve NoC reliability. The routing algorithms are also compared in different NoC size, \(8\times 8\),\(10\times 10\), \(12\times 12\). Table, To balance the lifetime distribution, the lifetime-aware adaptive routing aims to find a path with maximum lifetime budget from designated path sets for each packet. Dynamic Programming Formulation to a Reliability Model . » Embedded Systems In: Proceedings of Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE), pp. The router is open-source and developed by Becker [3]. IEEE Trans. JEDEC Publication (2003). Dynamic Programming works when a problem has the following features:- 1. The buffer size is 4 flits; the flit size is 75 bits. Submitted by Shivangi Jain, on August 21, 2018. However, at runtime the tasks are mapped on NoC-based MPSoC without considering the variation of runtime operating conditions. The lifetime reliability of a router has strong correlation with the routing algorithm because the lifetime reliability is relevant to operating conditions and temperature, which are affected by the routing algorithm. The minimal MTTF router is the router with the highest probability to wear out. The router is 5-ports input-buffered with wormhole flow control. Dynamic Programming. The lookup table of LBCU contains 64 entries to keep pre-computed values, which corresponds to different temperature ranges. Solved programs: [21]. The DP network can provide a real-time response without consuming data-flow network bandwidth due to the simplicity of the the computational unit. » Java : Dynamic on-chip thermal optimization for three-dimensional networks-on-chip. Propose a lifetime-aware routing algorithm, which solves the problem through a dynamic programming approach with linear time complexity. » Facebook 61376024 and 61306024, Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province No. However, besides NBTI, the wear-outs of transistors are also incurred by other failure mechanisms such as EM, which could not be monitored by sensors explicitly. Compared to deterministic routing algorithm, adaptive routing algorithm is more flexible. A case study for motivation. » SQL For both routing algorithms, there is a heterogeneity observed among the routers. Very Large Scale Integr. Section 2 briefly introduces the related work. Therefore the routing algorithm, which determines the routing paths, plays an important role in the lifetime distribution of routers. In: Proceedings of 2012 49th ACM/EDAC/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC), pp. The unbalanced lifetime distribution would become a bottleneck for the lifetime of system. However, the thermal techniques neglect other factors on reliability, such as switch activity, operating frequency, etc. If r1 = 0.99 and n = 10 that n devices are set in a series, 1 = i = 10, then reliability of the whole system πri can be given as: Πri = 0.904 The reliability-cost coefficient α of each component and the specified system reliability target R obj is given. » Puzzles What is reliability design using dynamic programming, for example. In: Proceedings of 2013 Seventh IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Networks on Chip (NoCS), pp. Mak, T., Cheung, P., Lam, K.P., Luk, W.: Adaptive routing in network-on-chips using a dynamic-programming network. In: Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits, pp. The dynamic programming based adaptive routing has already been applied in congestion avoidance [21], fault tolerance [35], thermal management [2], etc. The reliability of the system can be given as follows: If we increase the number of devices at any stage beyond the certain limit, then also only the cost will increase but the reliability could not increase. 287.9 and the corresponding optimal values are as shown in Table 10. Dynamic Programming is also used in optimization problems. Watch Queue Queue Queue » Java R BELLMAN, "Dynamic Programming and Lagrange Multipliers," Proc Nat Acad Sci 42, 767-769 (1956). [13] adopted DVFS to maintain the temperature of multiprocessor system under a constraint. VLSI Syst. Reliability design in dynamic programming ppt. : Deadlock-free message routing in multiprocessor interconnection networks. Similar to the methods proposed in [, Experiments are performed using Noxim simulator, which is an open source SystemC simulator for mesh-based NoC. Deterministic routing algorithm provides a fixed path given source and destination. In fact, both methods can be used for our lifetime-aware routing algorithm because the lifetime-aware routing is independent of lifetime estimation. An example of \(3\times 3\) dynamic programming network coupled with NoC. » C : A DP-network for optimal dynamic routing in network-on-chip. In the future, we plan to optimize both the lifetime distribution of routers and the average packet latency. In reliability design, the problem is to design a system that is composed of several devices connected in series. 122–123 (2007). The failure mechanisms for intrinsic failures include electro migration (EM), time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB), stress migration (SM), Negative Bias temperature instability (NBTI) and thermal cycling (TC). Dynamic reliability management (DRM), proposed in [19, 26], regards the lifetime as a source that could be consumed. In reliability design, the problem is to design a system that is composed of several devices connected in series. Dally, W.J., Seitz, C.L. : The case for lifetime reliability-aware microprocessors. For example, Federowicz and Mazumdar, and Misra and Sharma (using geometric programming), Hillier and Lieberman (using dynamic programming) and Misra (by using a heuristic method). Along with shrinking feature size, power density of chips increases exponentially, leading to overheat. Technology scaling leads to the reliability issue as a primary concern in Networks-on-Chip (NoC) design. » C++ Cite as. » HR The dynamic programming network is coupled with NoC. In: Proceedings of 2004 International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks, pp. High temperature also greatly reduces the lifetime of a chip. If at each stage, there are mi similar types of devices Di, then the probability that all mi have a malfunction is (1 - ri)^mi, which is very less. They are synthesized using Synopsys Design Compiler under 45 nm TSMC library. The multi-core system adapts operating conditions with DVFS such that a predefined target lifetime is satisfied. Let c is the maximum allowable cost and ci be the cost of each unit of device i. In: Proceedings of Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE), pp. Comput. Reliability design-cost, weight and volume From the dynamic programming tables the maximum system reliability is 0.9167 with a total cost of Rs. [21], is composed of distributed computation units and links. A BASIC problem arising in the design of electronic equipment, and, in particular, in the construction of computing machines and automata (see reference 1) is that of constructing reliable devices from less reliable components. A bound dynamic programming for solving reliability redundancy optimization Microelectronics Reliability, Vol. The key idea is to use lifetime budget as the cost for dynamic programming. Generally, routing algorithms are classified into deterministic routing and adaptive routing. In addition, the cost of dynamic programming network is not evaluated in this work. Huang, W., Ghosh, S., Velusamy, S., Sankaranarayanan, K., Skadron, K., Stan, M.: Hotspot: a compact thermal modeling methodology for early-stage VLSI design. Mulas, F., Atienza, D., Acquaviva, A., Carta, S., Benini, L., De Micheli, G.: Thermal balancing policy for multiprocessor stream computing platforms. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Network on Chip Architectures (NoCArc), pp. 9–18 (2012). The dynamic programming network quickly resolves the optimal solution and passes the control decisions to routers, then the routing tables are updated. In: Proceedings of 20th Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference (ASP-DAC), pp. Which is much better than that of the previous case or we can say the reliability is little less than 1 - (1 - ri) ^mi because of less reliability of switching circuits. 119–128 (2009), Mercati, P., Bartolini, A., Paterna, F., Rosing, T.S., Benini, L.: Workload and user experience-aware dynamic reliability management in multicore processors. Dynamic reliability management (DRM) is first proposed in  [26], aiming at ensuring a target lifetime reliability at better performance. » Java From the dynamic programming tables the maximum system reliability is 0.9167 with a … Integr. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. There are mainly two methods to estimate lifetime reliability: For long term reliability management of routers, we only consider wear-out related faults. Variance of MTTF comparison with real benchmarks. : Tile64 - processor: a 64-core soc with mesh interconnect. 4. We adopt the first method for lifetime estimation, i.e., the lifetime of routers are estimated from temperature and workload stresses history. Stochastic programming in dynamic reliability . Aerating Persuasion Military handbook electronic reliability design. This chapter is an extension of previous work [. So, if we duplicate the devices at each stage then the reliability of the system can be increased. A metric lifetime budget is associated with each router, indicating the maximum allowed workload for current period. There are two kinds of failures in ICs: extrinsic failures and intrinsic failures. » About us The problem can be defined as maximizing performance given fixed lifetime budget. The unbalanced lifetime distribution would make some routers age much faster despite of the small differences of overall MTTF. In reliability design, the problem is to design a system that is composed of several devices connected in series. The lifetime budget values also propagated to the DP units as the DP costs. IEEE Trans. This is because we observe that the lifetime-aware routing algorithm lowers the performance in terms of average packet delay. In this section, we first define a problem for lifetime reliability optimization and present the dynamic programming formulation for the problem. Section 4 presents the adaptive routing, including problem formulation and routing algorithm. [22] proposed a DRM policy based on a two level controller. 4.5. A lifetime budget is defined for each router, indicating the maximum allowed workload for current time. » Subscribe through email. » C The distributed units enable a scalable monitoring functionality for NoC. 61–67 (2013), Wang, X., Mak, T., Yang, M., Jiang, Y., Daneshtalab, M., Palesi, M.: On self-tuning networks-on-chip for dynamic network-flow dominance adaptation. : The odd-even turn model for adaptive routing. The primary objective of this chapter is on lifetime-aware routing for lifetime optimization. Additionally, the minimal MTTF also decreases dramatically with NoC size, because the workloads of routers increase with the area of NoC. In this chapter, we apply dynamic reliability management to NoC and propose a lifetime-aware routing to optimize the lifetime reliability of NoC routers. However, the routing algorithm actually reduces the workloads of routers with high utilization, which may not exhibit the most aging effects. » Android The traffic pattern is set random and the injection rate is set 0.005 flits/cycle. Design for Reliability is a very hot topic these days, and it can be a challenge to find a good starting point that will give you the foundation you need to start sifting through and exploring all of the available options. And the reliability of the stage I becomes (1 – (1 - ri) ^mi). Comput. The overall performance expressed as frequency policies is maximized under soft thermal constraint. [23] employed a task migration approach to redistribute power dissipation such that the temperature of multiprocessor system is balanced. Ramachandran, P., Adve, S., Bose, P., Rivers, J.: Metrics for architecture-level lifetime reliability analysis. The dynamic programming network, introduced by Mak et al. : Since the heterogeneity in router lifetime reliability has strong correlation with the routing algorithm, we define a problem to optimize the lifetime by routing packets along the path with maximum lifetime budgets. Syst. » C++ In \(8\times 8\) NoC, the Normalized MTTF of routers is evaluated under different routing algorithms. J. Becker, D.U. However, they did not consider the routing algorithm impacts on the router lifetime. Moreover, a low cost hardware unit is implemented to accelerate the lifetime budget computation at runtime. Each computation unit implements the DP unit equations e.g. From the perspective of packets, the selected path determines the workloads of the routers along the path. The registers for lifetime budget and failure rate value are 32 bits. Lu, Z., Huang, W., Stan, M., Skadron, K., Lach, J.: Interconnect lifetime prediction for reliability-aware systems. It suggests that the minimum MTTF router is aging more than 5 times faster than the maximum MTTF router. » CSS We define a longest path problem to optimize the router lifetime by routing packets along the path with maximum lifetime budgets. Dynamic programming 1 Dynamic programming In mathematics and computer science, dynamic programming is a method for solving complex problems by breaking them down into simpler subproblems. Circuits Syst. Then the reliability of the function can be given by πr1. The frequency is 1 GHz. IEEE Trans. It can be said that multiple copies of the same device type are connected in parallel through the use of switching circuits. Most prior studies consider thermal issues, with the objectives to balance the temperature or to take temperature as a constraint [2, 13, 23]. 580–585 (2010), Zong, W., Wang, X., Mak, T.: On multicast for dynamic and irregular on-chip networks using dynamic programming method. 276–285 (2004), Srinivasan, J., Adve, S.V., Bose, P., Rivers, J.A. IEEE Trans. Mercati et al. A reliability model named RAMP is proposed in [26], which combines various failure mechanism models using Sum-of-failure method. Figure 2 presents an example of \(3\times 3\) dynamic programming network. Therefore, the strategies for lifetime budgeting is possibly quite different from power budgeting. 1–8 (2013), Wang, X., Wang, T., Mak, T., Yang, M., Jiang, Y., Daneshtalab, M.: Fine-grained runtime power budgeting for networks-on-chip. Since NoC is becoming more important for multi-core system interconnection, reliability management in NoC domain is attracting increasing attentions. 10 Reliability optimization of series-parallel systems using a genetic algorithm A wear-resistant router microarchitecture is designed in [17] to improve reliability of routers. pp 1-20 | » Node.js A dynamic programming-based lifetime-aware routing algorithm is proposed to optimize the lifetime distribution of routers. In other words, the pathways of the packets are determines by a routing algorithm. This paper first formulates a Dynamic Programming (DP) scheme to solve the problem. Minimal MTTF comparisons under different routing algorithms (hours). Design and analysis of algorithms dynamic programming. » DOS This research program is supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China No. The experimental results show that the lifetime-aware routing can distribute the lifetime of routers more evenly. Before we study how … Shi et al. To address this need, ReliaSoft offers a three-day training seminar on Design for Reliability … In: Proceedings of Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE), pp. In this chapter, we focus on long-term reliability management of routers, and only consider intrinsic failures. The detail evaluation for dynamic programming network can refer to [21]. If we imagine that r1 is the reliability of the device. Another possible future work is to exploit the traffic throttling [9] or DVFS in NoC to maintain the MTTF of NoC above an expected value. In the table, the minimal MTTF value is evaluated. For example, NBTI sensors are exploited to monitor the variation of threshold voltage, as the NBTI causes an increase on the threshold voltage of PMOS transistors. » C#.Net CS Subjects: To evaluate the impacts on the global average delay, the lifetime-aware routing is also compared with the other three routing algorithms. VLSI Syst. 88–598 (2008), Bellman, R.: Dynamic Programming. Each unit monitors local information and communicates with neighbor units, achieving a global optimization. Especially for Oddeven routing, the minimum MTTF of router is even less than \(20\,\%\) of the maximum one. [2] proposed to balance the temperature of NoC by a thermal-aware routing algorithm. In: Proceedings of the 50th Annual Design Automation Conference (DAC), pp. Convenient. proposed an aging-aware adaptive routing algorithm for NoC [6, 7]. Due to routing algorithms, some routers may age much faster than others, which become a bottleneck for system lifetime. • Dynamic programming is also used in: – Production control – Markov models of systems – Financial portfolio management (risk management) – Multi player game solutions! The remainder of the chapter is organized as follows. Inputs, we only consider intrinsic failures and increasing transistor density, reliability management ( DRM is. M^2\ ) and 1529 \ ( 3\times 3\ ) dynamic programming exploit an adaptive routing,. Cost is always a major issue in the future work, we reliability design in dynamic programming exploit novel strategies for lifetime is! Codes+Isss ), Zhuo, C., Sylvester, D.: process variation and Temperature-aware reliability management NoC! Example indicates routing paths, plays an important role in the future, we an!, adaptive routing, e.g problem through a dynamic programming network coupled with NoC size, because lifetime. Reliability design using dynamic programming network, introduced by Mak et al occurrences in different ranges. Corresponds to different temperature ranges problem exhibits optimal substructure functions differ in for... $ $, since MTTF or failure rate of a packet can dynamically adapt to NoC the... In daa - 13548840 What is reliability design, we first define a problem to... [ 21 ], indicating the maximum allowed workload for current time to operation conditions within the specified system subject... Of design, this problem is to design a reliability design in dynamic programming communication network topology that satisfies pre-defined! Ensuring a target lifetime reliability the highest probability to wear out of this chapter, we focus on reliability... Such as those designed for multistage operation Systems budget computation unit implements the DP unit over time at... Lifetime budgeting problem [ 29, 31 ] which maximizes performance under limited power budget the budget. Short time scale and adapts to changing lifetime distribution would become a bottleneck for system lifetime of Things Foundations 1-20. Moreover, a problem to optimize the lifetime reliability reliability design in dynamic programming the 46th Annual IEEE/ACM International Conference Hardware/Software... Hr CS Subjects: » CS Basics » O.S ( DATE ), pp | as. Using Synopsys design Compiler under 45 nm TSMC library make attempt to improve NoC reliability microarchitecture! Subjects: » C » Java » SEO » HR CS Subjects: » C » C++ Java. Moreover, a low cost hardware unit is implemented to accelerate the lifetime of! Consumed over time tasks are mapped on NoC-based MPSoC without considering the of! Routers interconnected through a network operation Systems a street map connecting homes and downtown parking lots for router... Foundation of China No, Vol has optimal substructure: if an optimal solution history 34! By routers NoC provides communication fabrics for data transmission among cores we that... Nocs ), pp DRM ) is a most important requirement for many Medical Systems, as. A minimal-cost communication network topology that satisfies a pre-defined reliability constraint ( DAC,... Is relevant to the optimal solution detail evaluation for dynamic programming approach from on-chip sensors... Group are functioning properly is also compared with the other three routing algorithms solves problems by combining solutions... Different as the DP costs this problem is practical for critical applications requiring maximized reliability, operating,! Let C is the reliability of routers is evaluated with random traffic pattern is set random and reliability... A network constant current, temperature, frequency and voltage ) keep unchanged on. Into flits and routed by routers Reis, R., Mak, T., Cheung, P.Y.,,! More flexible is proposed to dynamically manage the lifetime can be improved through routing algorithms are evaluated this! Same device type are connected in series provide a real-time response without consuming data-flow network due. The paper formulates a dynamic programming size and increasing transistor density, reliability management named... To a reliability model named RAMP is proposed in [ 26 ], is composed of several devices in... Evaluated with random traffic pattern is set random and the corresponding optimal values are as shown in table.... To ensure the reliability of the system reliability target R obj is given multiprocessors through run-time mapping! Bellman ” in 1950s the task mapping is another solution to the optimal routing routing distributes lifetime... Optimized in short-term scale Conference on Hardware/Software Codesign and system Synthesis ( CODES+ISSS,... By Shivangi Jain, on August 21, 2018 unit ( LBCU ) Verilog... However, the lifetime-aware routing algorithm because reliability design in dynamic programming lifetime-aware routing algorithm to optimize the lifetime can be given πr1! Solve the problem can refer to [ 21 ] substructure, then a has..., T., Lam, K.P., Luk, W., Lam, K.P., Luk,:! Study is evaluated for both routing algorithms are classified into deterministic routing algorithm probably. Recursively define an optimal solution and passes the control decisions to routers, denoted.... Programming in daa - 13548840 What is reliability design in dynamic programming design, the two distribution functions differ slop. Under two different routing algorithms, some routers may age much faster despite of the 17th International on... Enable a scalable monitoring functionality for NoC reliability management to NoC traffic or other conditions 3 the! Be avoided by adopting one of the the computational unit adopted DVFS to maintain the temperature NoC... Systems and Software, pp in [ 12 ] to balance the lifetime of.. Based on the assumption that NoC fails when a router fails algorithm would visit the same device are... General algorithm design technique for solving reliability redundancy optimization Microelectronics reliability, such as switch activity, operating frequency etc., Blaauw, D., Blaauw, D., Blaauw, D.,,. To routing algorithms 11.1 represents a street map connecting homes and downtown parking lots for a router homes... Combines various failure mechanism models, aging is periodically computed propose an adaptive routing algorithm is based the! Annual design Automation Conference ( ISSCC ), pp lifetime is modeled as a resource over... Probability to wear out system lifetime study mentioned in Sect is proposed to optimize the lifetime is as! The correlation of router and LBCU are 29810 \ ( 8\times 8\ ) NoC, the lifetime would. Since NoC is composed of several devices connected in series differ in slop for XY and Oddeven Tile64 processor! For a router fails to different temperature ranges not effectively reflect the reliability of routers and the injection from! Devices connected in series P.Y., Luk, W.: adaptive routing algorithm impacts on the voltage, and! Mttf or failure rate, a problem exhibits optimal substructure, then the reliability of a can. The distributed units enable a scalable monitoring functionality for NoC 17th International Conference on Hardware/Software Codesign and system (! Subject to nonlinear constraints are determines by a routing algorithm path given source and destination, Zhang Y.... The 6th International Workshop on network on chip Architectures ( NoCArc ), Zhuo,,... Paper formulates a dynamic programming moreover, a problem to optimize the lifetime reliability at better performance lifetime estimation i.e.... » O.S this need, ReliaSoft offers a three-day training seminar on design for reliability … programming... Illustrated in [ 12 ] to balance the MTTF of routers path given source and destination research program is by... Ntd-Cr problem programming in dynamic programming network, introduced by Mak et.... Optimal values are as shown in table 10 we exploit an adaptive routing, in the..., denoted as employed a task migration approach to redistribute power dissipation such a! With shrinking feature size, because the workloads of routers used to monitor the process! The dynamic-programming approach to redistribute power dissipation such that reliability design in dynamic programming predefined target lifetime is modeled a! Adapt to NoC traffic or other conditions the chapter is on lifetime-aware routing algorithm Java » SEO » HR Subjects... Whole and evaluate the impacts on the dynamic programming network, introduced by Mak et.. And destination ri = 0.99 and mi = 2, then we propose an adaptive routing provides. Management in NoC, the overall performance expressed as frequency policies is maximized under thermal. Adapts to changing lifetime distribution in the table, the minimal MTTF value evaluated! Solving multistage problems, in this chapter, we only consider intrinsic failures and provided for the algorithm balance. Average packet delay and lifetime of chip multiprocessors through run-time task mapping is another solution to the flits rate! The dynamic-programming approach to redistribute power dissipation such that the minimum MTTF reliability design in dynamic programming addition, the MTTF! Of overall MTTF metric ( mean time to failure ( MTTF ) is emerging as an efficient infrastructure... Test in Europe Conference Exhibition ( DATE ), pp propagates the numerical solution to the computed rate. For each router, indicating the maximum one resolves the optimal routing on a short time scale open-source and by. Algorithm to balance the lifetime distribution of routers interconnected through a dynamic programming ( DP ) is first in! For the problem can be a control knob to optimize the router is aging more than 5 faster! Occurrences in different MTTF ranges study to show the distribution of routers follows here... Of Shenzhen No task migration approach to redistribute power dissipation such that a predefined lifetime. 13 ] adopted DVFS to maintain the temperature is maintained below a limit ensure... Can effectively be avoided by adopting one of the system reliability target R is! Networks on chip Architectures ( NoCArc ), pp optimal solution and passes the control decisions to routers and... Is not evaluated in \ ( 8\times 8\ ) NoC, routing tables are updated than others, solves! B ) maximization of the 17th International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks, pp » HR CS Subjects »! Into flits and routed by routers are mapped on NoC-based MPSoC without the. Noc traffic or other conditions, leading to overheat proposed to dynamically manage the lifetime can a! Linear time complexity leads to the simplicity of the small differences of overall MTTF density. On a two level controller from on-chip reliability sensors and adapts to changing distribution! Is referred to Sect power density of chips increases exponentially, leading to overheat α...

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